A review of the Theory of Substituting Essence for Attributes in the Ontology of Divine Qualities and its Relationship with the Problem of Negation of Attributes and the Theory of Objectivity

@ Morteza Khoshsohbat / Doctor of Islamic Theology Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute


Hassan Yousefian / Associate Professor, Department of Theology, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute   hasanusofian@gmail.com

Received: 2020 April 10 - Accepted: 2020 August 24



The question whether or notGod Almighty has qualities and if so, how it relates to the divine essence, has provided a set of issues in Islamic thought that it is classified the heading of monotheistic attributes and today are known as the "ontology of divine qualities”. These issues have been historically discussed among Muslim thinkers since the first century AH, and each of them has theorized about them based on the principles and presuppositions of their intellectual system. One of the most important theories in this field is the theory of deputation which has seen various reactions.in this study, we have read the theory of deputation and recognized its pillars by using of analytical-historical view, and while proving the existence of such a theory among the Mu'tazila, we have recognized the believers in it from the Mu'tazila and other religions. We have come to the conclusion that this theory is an explanation for the negation of attributes and its delivery to the theory of Sadra objectivity is not correct.

Key words: ontology of divine qualities, Deputation, denial of qualities, objectivity, Mu'tazilite theologians, Imami theologians.



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