A Critique of Orientalist’s Image of the Doctrine of "Bada’" Based on Imamiyah Shiite Sources

Ahmad Beheshti Mehr / Assistant Professor of Qom University                  a.beheshti@mail.qom.ac.ir

@ Zahra Farzanegan / PhD student in Islamic Theology, Qom University         z.farzanegan@gmail.com

Received: 2020 March 16 - Accepted: 2020 July 27



The article” abot bada” has written by Goldziher and Triton in the Encyclopedia of Islam is concerned the doctrine of bada' advocated. This article investigates the definition of bada’, the evidence establishing it, its historical development and some examples of bada’ according to Sunni and Shiite sources. Although this article tries to present views of the opponents and the improper framework and the great concentration on Sunni sources (compared to Shiite sources) have made the article suffer from weaknesses in the content, the article need to be revised. The differences of opinion among Imamiyah theologians over the definition of bada’ have greatly contributed to the failure of non-Muslim writers to present a common and unambiguous picture of bada’. Using a descriptive-analytical method this article critically examines the definition of bada’ and its relationship with divine science, the history of the origin of the belief in bada’ Muslim community and its socio-historical outcomes by. A suitable framework is suggested by the article in an attempt to overcome the weaknesses of the current structure.

key words: the extremist view of the definition of bada’, the moderate view in the definition of bada’, innate and current science, the bada’ in the Imamate, Leiden, Netherlands Encyclopedia of Islam.


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