Voluntarism as a Foundation for Religious Science; according to the Theory of Academy of Islamic Sciences

Seyyed Mohammad Taqhi Mowahhed Abtahi*


The present paper briefly introduces the approach of the academy of Islamic sciences to "religious science". One of its most basic foundations, which is called "voluntarism" in the literature of epistemology and philosophy of science, has been investigated and the doubts raised about them have been resolved. Finally, some of its ambiguous points and wrong logical requirements, weakness in providing arguments against realism, its lack of giving a precise description of anti-realism approach and inattention to its requirements have been discussed and analyzed. Also, the incompatibility of this theory with respect to realistic tendency has been explained.

Key words: religious science, academy of Islamic sciences, voluntarism, psychologism, realism, relativism, incommensurability



Monotheism and Polytheism in the Field of Knowledge and Human Sciences (with Emphasis on the Works and Thoughts of Martyr Professor Morteza Motahhari)

Ali Asghar Khandan*


The main question of this paper is: "how can we recognize the monotheistic and polytheistic thoughts in knowledge, especially in human sciences"? This paper stressing the principle of principles, that is "monotheism", seeks to find indicators for distinguishing Islamic teachings from non-Islamic ones, by reviewing, analyzing, and classifying the thoughts of martyr professor Motahhari. The first indicator "is the state of belonging to Him (Allah)" through which it is possible to discern the distinction between monotheism and polytheism in theoretical teachings and then recognize and criticize the following great intellectual deviations: considering the world of existence as illusion, materialism, dualism, delegation, determinism, rejection of causality, etc. The unconscious outcomes of these theories rooted in the minds most people are traceable in all fields of knowledge including natural and human sciences.

The second indicator is "the state of returning to Him (Allah)" which represents a boundary between monotheism and polytheism in practical teachings and by this indicator one can recognize and criticize the following polytheistic thoughts: idolatry, (covert and overt) egoism, acceptance of devil (false god or illegitimate ruler), kinds of one-dimensional values, especially deviational theories on justice.

Key words: monotheism, the state of belonging to Him (Allah), the state returning to Him (Allah), Motahhari, criticism, knowledge.



A contrastive Analysis of the Idea of the Creation of the Quran and the Idea of Man's Creation of the Quran ( according to Mu'tazililtes') and Dr. Soroush

Jawad Goli,* Abulfazl Rouhi**


Mr. Soroush holds that the Quran is a human product and in order to support his theory in Islamic theology he attributes this theory to Mu'tazilites. He claims that Mu'tazilites believe that the Qur'an is something accidental and refers to its being created by man and its fallibility. The present paper tries to examine the question whether or not the Mu'tazilites' theory on the creation of the Qur'an has anything to do with Soroush's theory that the Qur'an is a human product. First, necessary data have been gathered from Mu'tazilites' works, valid theological resources, and Soroush's works, and then, the Mu'tazilites' and Soroush's theories on the Qur'an are expounded. Then the origins, basic fundamentals, arguments, and requisites of their theories are stated, criticized and contrasted. The research findings show that Soroush's standpoint on the Qur'an contradicts, from different sides, that of the Mu'tazilites. Contrary to Soroush's view, the Mu'tazilites believe that the Qur'an has been created by the Most High God and reject that idea that it is a man's product.

Key words: the Quran, created thing, human, the Mu'tazilites, Soroush.



Martyr Professor Motahhari; the Founder of Shi'ite Modern Theology

Waliullah 'Abbasi* Ali Reza Ghaeminia **


Theology, especially modern theological issues, is among the most important scientific issues. No doubt, martyr professor Motahhari is regarded as one of the prominent and innovator figures in contemporary Islamic thought. He had deep and vast studies on Islamic philosophy and theology. Due to his familiarity with western philosophy and theology, he seriously concerned himself with important problems and basic questions of modern period and had very influential role in founding the modern theology. Therefore, we can regard him as the founder of new Shiʿite theology. The present paper tries to clarify his position in the discourse of modern theology, and discuss some of his theories on emergent theological issues.

Key words: modern theology, modernization, the termination of prophecy, reason, science and religion, hermeneutic, religious pluralism



(Followers of the Qur'an or Opponents of Prophet's Sunnah)

Seyyed Abdullah Husseini*


"Qur'anites" is an new intellectual trend among the Sunnis which considers the Qur'an as the only source of divine legislation and totally rejects the validity of the Sunnah. This intellectual trend first appeared in India and then in Egypt. The Sunnis have anathematized them and they in return consider all Islamic schools of thought as deviant because of their relying on the Prophet's Sunnah. Some of their circles believe that all Muslims are polytheist and non-Muslims. They claim purity in religion. However, the analysis of their views, beliefs, and intellectual fundamentals shows that this intellectual trend is extremely modernist, politically pro-western, methodologically dogmatist, and some of them are extremist. In India and Arab countries individuals and circles propagate this intellectual trend which in fact forms several sects with regard to their intellectual fundamentals, legal and juristic theories, and commentaries of Qur'anic verses. Most of their commentaries and standpoints lack logical coherence and their arguments and interpretations of the Qur'an based on personal opinions are fallacious.

The research method is library survey. Since the resources about this trend are not available in Iran and its main activity is found on some websites in the Internet, the websites propagating this trend are the main resources of this research.

Key words: Qur'anites, the people of the Qur'an, opponents of the Sunnah, Quran's sufficiency in religion.



Theological Views of Sheikhiyeh Order

Ali Akbar Bagheri*


"Sheikhiyeh" is an order which separated from Twelver-Imami Shiʿah in the last two centuries. They are the followers of Sheikh Ahmad Ihsaī. Although, the followers of Sheikhiyeh try to introduce themselves as Twelver Shiʿah, they have some beliefs that are by no means similar to those of Twelver Shiʿah. The present paper tries to cast light on the Sheikhiyeh order to find what it is, its leading figures, their beliefs, and the differences between Sheikhiyeh and non-Sheikhiyeh. Finally, it examines and analyzes the beliefs attributed to them by comparing them with those of Infallible Imams.

Sheikhiyeh order has gone astray in some of its beliefs including the issue of resurrection of the body, extreme views on the status of the Holy Prophet (may the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny) and Imams (A.S), the fourth pillar, the physical life of Imam Mahdi (A.S), and following religious authorities. The research uses a library survey and, in some cases, field survey. It also uses descriptive and analytical methods.

Key words: Ahmad Ihsaī, resurrection of the body, corps astral, prophecy, ascension, Imamate, the fourth pillar.



The Shi'ah Condition during the Presence of Imams (A.S), and the Doctrine of Mahdism

Seyyed Ali Hashemi*


One of the important issues is the historical authenticity of belief in the Promised Deliverer which some criticize today. A descriptive-analytical study of the early historical and narrative sources shows that the authenticity of this doctrine and attributing it to the Shiʿah during the presence of Infallible Imams (A.S) ,that is from Imam ʿAli's time throughout the presence period, can be proved and its foundations can be traced. The only issue on which there was disagreement and ambiguity is determining who the Promised Mahdi himself is, which seems natural due to the political conditions of the presence period in which it was difficult for the Shiʿah to explain their knowledge, the gradual process of explaining and establishing some doctrines (on Mahdism), the emphasis on waiting (for Mahdi – A.S), the natural ground for the ambiguity of the details of Mahdism doctrine, and different levels of individuals' knowledge, etc. such a difference and ambiguity cannot be considered as weakness in the authenticity of this doctrine among the shiʿas of presence period.

Key words: Mahdism, deliverer, the companions of the Imams (A.S), the early shiʿah.

* Ph.D Student of Philosophy of Sciences and Technology, the Human Sciences and Cultural Studies research Center smtm_abtahi@yahoo.com

Received: 2010/5/1 – Accepted: 2010/9/11

* Assistant Professor of Islamic Sciences Department, Imam Sadiq University

khandan@isu.ac.ir  Received: 2011/1/31 – Accepted: 2011/5/5

* M.A of Theology, IKI rzgoli@gmail.com

** Ph.D of Philosophy, IKI. Received: 2011/2/27 – Accepted: 2011/5/11

* Researcher of Seminary v_abbasi360@yahoo.com.

** Associate Professor of the research center of culture and thought

Received: 2011/5/3 – Accepted: 2011/8/23

* Ph.D Student of Quranic sciences and commentary, Al- Mustafa International University

golsero@yahoo.com  Received: 2011/4/26 - Accepted: 2011/8/28

* Ph.D Student of the roots of Revolution, Political Course, IKI. bbb.ali54@yahoo.com

Received: 2011/5/26 - Accepted: 2011/7/13

* Ph.D Student of Islamic Theology, Al-Mustafa International University.

1sayyedali@gmail.com  Received: 2011/2/20 – Accepted: 2011/8/23

Table of Contents

The Shi"ah Condition during the Presence of Imams (A.S), and the Doctrine of Mahdism/Seyyed Ali Hashemi

Theological Views of Sheikhiyeh Order/ Ali Akbar Bagheri

Qur'anites (Followers of the Qur'an or Opponents of Prophet's Sunnah)/ Seyyed Abdullah Husseini

Martyr Professor Motahhari; the Founder of Shi'ite Modern Theology/ Waliullah 'Abbasi, Ali Reza Ghaeminia

A contrastive Analysis of the Idea of the Creation of the Quran and the Idea of Man's Creation of the Quran (according to Mu'tazililtes') and Dr. Soroush/ Jawad Goli, Abulfazl Rouhi

Monotheism and Polytheism in the Field of Knowledge and Human Sciences (with Emphasis on the Works and Thoughts of Martyr Professor Morteza Motahhari)/Ali Asghar Khandan

Voluntarism as a Foundation for Religious Science; according to the Theory of Academy of Islamic Sciences/ Seyyed Mohammad Taqhi Mowahhed Abtahi

In the Name of Allah

Marifat Kalami Vol.1, No.4

A Quarterly Journal of Theology Winter 2011

Proprietor: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Editior in Chief: Mahmum Fathali

Editor: Abulfazl Sajedi

Coordinator: Mohammad Sadegh Sajedi

Translation of Abstracts:Language Department of IKI

Editorial Board:

ª Mohammad Hoseinzadeh: Professor IKI

ª Abd-Al-Hosein Khosropanah:Associate Professor, Research Center for Islamic culture and thought

ª Abulfazl Sajedi:Associate Professor, IKI

ª Ahmadhosein Sharifi:Associate Professor, IKI

ª Alireda Ghaeminiya:Associate Professor, Research Center for Islamic culture and thought

ª Mohammadhasan Ghadrdan Gharamaleki:Associate Professor, Research Center for culture and thought

ª Ali Mesbah: Associate Professor, IKI.

ª Mohammad Mohammadredaii: Associate Professor, Tehran University, Qum Pardis.



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