The Influence of Humanism on Reformation Protestantism

Seyyed Ali Hassani*


Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper examines the effect of humanism on the development of Reformation Protestantism. To this end, the author first defines humanism and explains its three stages after the Renaissance and the features it has in each of these stages. Having defined the features of humanism during the period of religious reform movement and delved into the life and thoughts of some of the former great thinkers of the movement, the author observes that although the life and thoughts of these thinkers were influenced by humanism, the degree of the influence of them differs, and that some of them no longer believe in the principles of humanism.

Key words: humanism, Reformation, Luther, Zwingli, Calvin

A Critique of the Theory of Diversity between Religion and Spirituality

'Abdullah Mohammadi*


One of the most important issues which is worth discussing in philosophy of religion and when studying spirituality is the relationship between spirituality and religion. The various motivations of and approaches to the study of spirituality have been the cause of the different interpretations of the reality, roots and results of spirituality. Some believe that spirituality not only differs from religion but also contradicts it. The present paper seeks to review the concepts of "religion" and "spirituality" in order to bring out the difference between true spirituality and false spirituality through classifying the different types of spirituality and examining the basic components of real spirituality. Also, it touches on the relationship between spirituality and intellect, and the necessity of the existence of agreement between the different interpretations of spirituality and rational axioms. Then, it assesses and rejects the arguments of those who assume that there is contradiction between spirituality and religion and confirms the causal relationship between religion and spirituality to conclude that spirituality is exclusive to religious spirituality, and to Islamic spirituality in particular. A documentary- analytical method is used in this research, which seeks to prove the main claim by analyzing and criticizing the arguments offered by those who support the idea of diversity between spirituality and religion.

Key words: spirituality, religion, religious spirituality, relationship between religion and spirituality, obedience, historical religion.

Rational and Qur’anic Proofs of Rational and Essential Goodness and Badness of Acts

Hassan Sadeqi*


One of the controversial issues between 'Adilites (the twelvers and Mu'tazilites) and Ashʻarites is the intellectual- essential goodness and badness of acts. ʻAdlites advocate the idea of rational and essential goodness and badness of acts, but Ashʻarites reject it and believe in legal goodness and badness of acts. ʻAdlites, especially Twelvers, say that there are different rational and transmitted proofs for the goodness and badness of acts. Accepting this idea exerts many effects on theology, guide-knowing, ethics and precepts.

Giving a descriptive, the present paper explores Quranic and rational evidence to confirm the idea of rational and essential goodness and badness of acts. The most important findings of this research show that, according to rational and Qur’anic evidence the goodness and badness of acts are essential, not conventional, man’s intellect comprehends the goodness and badness of acts and most of the necessary and doctrinal issues in Islam depend on rational and essential goodness and badness of acts.

Key words: goodness and badness, essential goodness and badness, rational goodness and badness, legal goodness and badness, the Twelvers, Muʻtazilites, Ashʻarites.

A Comparison between Reincarnation in Hindu Faith and the Doctrine of Return in Shiite School

Ahmad Ali Niyazi*


Comparing doctrines of one religion with similar doctrines of other religions and pointing out the similarities and differences between them can contribute to deep understanding of religious beliefs. One of the main beliefs in eastern religions is reincarnation, which means belief in rebirth of souls in new bodies in this world. The Shiite school advocates the doctrine of Return, in the sense that some of the dead decedents will be brought back to the life at the time or after Imam Mahdi's universal uprising. It is sometimes thought that these two doctrines are of the same origin and that the doctrine of return which some Muslims advocate has been taken from other religions. Therefore, it is necessary to contemplate on, and re-examine the relationship between return and reincarnation in order to comment on this claim. This issue has different dimensions so the present paper tries to study the similarities and differences between the two doctrines. It elaborates on the fact that these two doctrines differ in terms of foundations, principles, and aims. Using a comparative method, the author analyzes the principles and implications of these two doctrines.

Key words: reincarnation, return, karma, Hindu, Shiite, difference, similarity.

Contemplation on an Article Entitled " Contemplation on ʻAllamah abāabas Theory about the Idea of Imamate in the Verse of Ibtila' (trial)

Alireza Noubari*


The holy Qur’an contains various verses about guidance and uses different terms taking into account that the occasion in which the term issued. Commentators have expressed their views on these verses and did their best to explain the meaning of guidance. One of these terms is the word “Imam” which comes in the “verse of trial”. Scholars have expounded their views on this verse. The author of Al-Mizan, ʻAllamah ṬabāṭabaῙ, introduces an innovative interpretation of this verse. Theological Knowledge, in 5th volume, contains an article entitled "contemplation on ʻAllamah ṬabāṭabaῙ’s theory about the idea of Imamate in the verse of trial" in which the author rejects ʻAllamas interpretation. Rejecting ʻAllamas interpretation, the author of that article holds that the idea refers to the prophet Ibrahim's capability to enforce decrees. The present paper confirms ʻAllamah ṬabāṭabaῙ’s proofs after a thorough review of his interpretation, to refute the proofs and views given by the author of the article. The research uses a library method and Quran by Quran interpretation.

Key words: the verse of trial, reaching the desired objective, Imamate.

Imamate according to Imam Sadiq’s School

Mohammad Hussein Faryab*


The meaning of Imamate in which the Shiah believe is one of the most fundamental beliefs which gives Shiʻite school precedence over other Islamic schools. Shiʻite scholars have delved into the belief of Imamate and their investigations are based on transmitted knowledge and rational evidence. Referring to transmitted knowledge and historical sources and examining Imam Sadiq's sayings, the present paper studies the belief of Imamate. The most important research findings show that during the life time of Imam Sadeq, the inquiry into explanations and descriptions of Imamate was highly exceptional when compared with the early period of the development of Shiʻite school, which was a cause for some to believe in Imams' divinity in that period. According to Imam Sadiq's sayings, Imam has the following privileges: he is God's argument over God’s servants, he has the responsibility of religious, scientific, moral and political authority, he is a mediator between God and servants, for bestowing favours upon them, he is appointed by God, he is infallible and he has God-given knowledge.

Key words: Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him), Imamate, infallibility, knowledge, appointment, authority.


The Proofs of Unity of the Divine Essence Cited in Traditions

Behman Malekzadeh*, Mohammad Ja'fari**


Intellect and intellectuality are considered among man's important characteristics and merits which always take man towards happiness and can be considered as a language shared by all people. Therefore, the leading figures of a religion have frequently used this divine blessing in conveying the divine message. The present paper studies the proofs of unity of the divine essence presented by traditions (riwayat). Using a library and descriptive analysis, the author tries to extract proofs derived from the traditions. There are a lot of evidence in the Fourteen Infallibles' works which can be cited in this regard including the argument from negating composition, the argument from negation of limitation, the proof from interval between two or more gods, the proof from exclusiveness of effects to one God, and the proof from no lack of evidence for two or more gods.

Key words: proof, monotheism, interval, innate nature, unity of the divine essence, counteraction of absolute powers, mutual exclusion, traditions, theology based on transmitted knowledge.

* PhD of Religions and Mysticism, IKI seyedAli5@Gmail.com

Received: 2011/12/31 - Accepted: 2012/4/18

* . PhD student of philosophy, Baqir Al-'Uloom University Abmohammadi379@gmail.com

Received: 2012/4/9 - Accepted: 2012/8/1

* .MA of Quranic commentary and sciences, IKI sadegi114@gmail.com

Received: 2013/1/14 - Accepted: 2012/6/26

* . PhD student of Islamic theology, Al- Mustafa International University sadegi114@gmail.com

Received: 2012/3/10 - Accepted: 2012/6/26

* . PhD student of Quran and scriptures, university of Islamic sciences shabe1355@yahoo.com

Received: 2012/4/3 - Accepted: 2012/7/26

* . PhD student of Islamic theology, IKI m.faryab@gmail.com

Received: 2012/4/29 - Accepted: 2012/9/4

* . MA student of theology, IKI malekzadeh313@yahoo.com

** Assistant professor of theology department, IKI mjafari125@yahoo.com

Received: 2012/1/15 - Accepted: 2012/4/30