The Prerequisites for Understanding
“the Theory of Innate Disposition”


Ahmad Abutorabi / Assistant Professor of Philosophy, IKI         ahmad.abutorabi@gmail.com

Received: 2014/11/08 - Accepted: 2015/01/03



In spite of the great importance and long history of the issue of innate disposition, it still faces numerous challenges and there is a substantial disagreement about it among thinkers, especially philosophers. One of the main factors behind this persistent difference of opinion is that the conceptualization and judgment foundations of this subject have not been independently scrutinized.

The shortcomings in deciphering the meaning of the term Fitra (innate disposition) and Fitri (innate), inattention to the classification of innate disposition and differences in the judgment of each kind, lack of close scrutiny of the main elements of the concept of innate disposition and deficiencies in the methodology of this subject are among the most important factors. Extracting and analyzing the different meanings of innate disposition by referring to religious, logical, philosophical and mystical sources, this paper seeks to define the scope for dispute. It concludes that the common view about the need of innate affairs for two conceptual features; that is,” generality” and “permanence” is not tenable.


Key words: innate knowledge, innate disposition, the nature of mind, the nature of illusion, potentially innate, actually innate, nature of analogy innate.

A Comparative Study about Miracle’s Demonstration of
the Veracity of Assuming Prophethood according
to Allame Tabatabai and Ibn-e-Rushd


@ Vahideh Fakhar Noghani / Assistant Professor of Ferdosi University of Mashhad           


Sayed Morteza Hosseini Shahrudi / A Professor of Ferdosi University of Mashhad          

Received: 2014/10/21 - Accepted: 2015/03/04                    shahrudi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir



A miracle is a supernatural act or event intended to demonstrate to people the veracity of prophets’ assuming prophethood. The important question which arises here is about the type of evidence miracles have and its relation with the veracity of assuming prophethood. There is a total disagreement over this point between Allame Tabatabai and Ibn-e-Rushd, two Muslim thinkers. Emphasizing the disproportion between current miracles and assuming prophethood, Ibn-e-Roshad rejects the idea that there is a logical relation between miracles and substantiating prophethood and regards the evidence confirming it as persuasive. Allame tabatabai, however, resting on the rule of judgment of patterns, considers these indications as rational and the certainty which they show as logical. In Ibn-e-Rushd’s opinion, the only way to prove the veracity of prophethood is to deliberate on the content of divine revelation and understand its difference from the other branches of human knowledge. As for Allame Tabatabai, he holds that the claim of prophethood is rendered acceptable only when miracles occur.

Key words: miracle, logical indication, persuasive indication, logical certainty, psychological certainty, Allame Tabatabai, Ibne-Rushd.

A Critique of the Most Important Pretexts of Baha’is for Casting Theological Doubt on the Belief of the Prophet of Islam's Being the Seal of Prophets


Hossein Rahnamaei / Assistant Professor of Tehran University hedayat110@gmail.com

Received: 2014/03/17 - Accepted: 2014/09/02



Some of the most important features of Islam are its universality, everlastingness of its precepts and it’s being the seal of religions. This last feature has been challenged by some who claim that new prophets with new religions can come after Islam. Among the proponents of this claim who appeared in the last two decades Mirza Hossein Ali Noori, the founder of Baha’ism, achieved great popularity. Baha’ism regards itself as a continuation of other Divine religions like; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Therefore, an important part of Baha’i educational and propagation works is devoted to justifying and explaining the development of discrepancy between Baha’ism and the teaching of Muhammad's being the seal of prophets.

The solution offered by Baha’is presented in the form of traditional, Qur’anic and theological doubts based on doctrinal and theological foundations, such as the theory of manifestation, theophany, unity of reality, manifestation of command, chronological basis of religions and necessity of renewal of relations, taking into account the requirements of time. This paper expounds the above-mentioned basics and the theological doubts raised in this respect.


Key words: Baha’ism, the state of being the seal of prophets, theophany, manifestation, theological doubts, religion.


The Role of Ontological Viewpoint of Ibne-e-Arabi in Clarifying the Quiddity and Reality of Divine Revelation


@ Sayyed Mohammad Ghaderi / PhD student of Islamic philosophy, international
     university of Qazvin                                                   mohammad.ghadery@yahoo.com

Sayyed Razi Ghaderi / PhD student of Islamic ethics, University of Bagher Al- Olum

Received: 2014/05/09 - Accepted: 2014/10/05



The reality and quiddity of Divine revelation is among the complicated problems in Islam. Scholars and thinkers have presented different theories in order to clarify and analyze this issue. Ibn-E-Arabi’s explanation of revelation is of great importance and has been of special interest to thinkers. This paper first reviews, some issues about revelation, such as the meaning of revelation, necessity of revelation, levels of revelation and the relationship between revelation and mystical intuition. Ibn-Arabi's analysis of the  manner of descent of revelation is based on an ontological perspective; so the paper initially explains this issue briefly and then,  presenting  four basic features of divine revelation which are derived from Ibn -Arabi’s  ontological view, it analyses and clarifies how the descent of revelation occurs and what according to  Ibn- Arabi's view, its reality is.

Key words: Muhammadan reality, eternal haecceity, oneness, uniqueness, Gabriel, material element, divine revelation.

A Review of into the Luminous Life of the Infallible Imams


Mohammad Hussein Faryab / Assistant Professor of IKI              m.faryab@gmail.com

Received: 2014/02/06 - Accepted: 2014/08/06



The issue of the luminous creation of the infallible Imams is considerably reflected in traditions. However, this issue has not been fairly dealt with in the works of theologians and researchers. Using a descriptive-analytical approach and referring to reliable traditions, the author investigates this subject, especially the state of Imams in this regard. The most important findings of the research show that, although some thinkers strongly deny the existence of souls before bodies, numerous reliable traditions confirm that the infallible Imams have a luminous and spiritual life. Accordingly, they are the first of those whom God has created. In that stage they had luminous real existence and were engaged in praising and glorifying God. According to reliable traditions, their existence has been a means of grace for the creation of other creatures.

Key Words: Imam, the world of lights, luminous life, the first creature, means of grace, glorifying God.

The Relation between “Knowledge of the Book” and Ontological Guardianship of the Household of the Prophet


Sayyed Mohammad Hassan Saleh / PhD. Student of Thoelogy, IKI m.hasansaleh2010@gmail.com

Received: 2014/07/01 - Accepted: 2014/12/25                                                     



The concept of” knowledge of the Book”, to which the Qur’an refers as one of the exceptional merits of the Household of the Prophet, has a direct relation to and a key role in proving the ontological guardianship of the Household of the Prophet. Some traditions confirm that because the Household this special knowledge, they are introduced as having ontological dominion. Using an analytical-descriptive approach based on a library-based survey, this paper deals with the relation between the two concepts: “knowledge of the Book “and “limited knowledge of the Book “and its ontological effects and emphasizes that this science is inseparable from free-will and and power. The author argues that taking these points into account have a basic role in proving the Household's ontological guardianship and referring to the verse of "knowledge of the Book.

Key words: knowledge of the Book, limited knowledge of the Book, Supreme Name of God, guardianship, genetic guardianship, the Household of the Prophet, ontological dominion.

The Necessity-in-Relation of Effect through Maintaining Free-will


Asgari Soleimani Amiri / Associate professor of IKI    solymaniaskari@mihanmail.ir

Received: 2014/09/10 - Accepted: 2015/02/04



The necessity-in-relation is one of the branches of the principle of causality, the denial of which, according to philosophers, entails the denial of the principle of causality.  According to some theologians, it is naive to suppose that causal necessity consists in free agents and the world is contingent and needs the exalted God. So, they use priority as a substitute for causal necessity. Some Shi’a authorities on Usul (principles of religion) regard causal necessity in relation to free agents to be problematic. Some contemporary thinkers firmly deny necessity of causality, including that of otherness or in relation to something else and presented evidence for negating the existence of these two kinds of necessity. They hold that accepting the idea of causal necessity renders free agents meaningless and all agents active. This paper seeks to investigate the evidence which supports this claim and establish the claim which is common to philosophers.

Key words: causality, causal necessity, necessity-in–relation of effect, free will.