A Comparative Study of Resurrection
in Mysticism, Philosophy and Theology


Ali Reza Kermani / Assistant professor of mysticism department, IKI             Kermania59@yahoo.com

Received:  2015/04/25- Accepted: 2015/10/01



Due to the high position of the doctrine of resurrection in religious texts, Muslim thinkers have investigated and analyzed the question of resurrection from an ontological view or for the purpose of proving or defending the religious doctrines. Resting on creation principles, some theologians and philosophers believe that resurrection is either corporeal or spiritual. But, like most Muslim thinkers, mystics consider this restriction as in complete, and believe in its corporeal and spiritual property. In presenting and expounding this view, mystics keep aloof from other thinkers. They adhere to such principles like the order of manifestation, the reality of man, death and resurrection. In stressing the differences between the variant emanations of Judgment day, they hold that man will not necessarily be resurrected in a natural and elemental body, and that in the dwelling place of Paradise and Hell, the dwellers of Hell have a natural and elemental bodies and the dwellers of Paradise have natural and gentle bodies.

Key words: resurrection, corporeal resurrection, spiritual resurrection, theology, philosophy, mysticism.

The Reality of Spirit and Its Uses
in the Qur'an and Narrations according to the Allamah Tabatabai’s View


Naser al Reza Ziaei Niya / Scholar in the 4th Level of Qom Seminary.              17561naser@gmail.com

Akbar Faydei / instructor of philosophy and Islamic philosophy, Shahid Madani University, Azarbayjan

Received: 2015/07/19- Accepted: 2015/12/06                                                            faydei@yahoo.com



Having close acquaintance with the reality of ''spirit'' and its uses in the Qur'an and narrations is a key to understanding many of the principles of Islam. In order to have a proper and clear understanding of the reality of spirit, serious attention should be given to its uses in the Qur'an and narrations, especially with regard to the relationship between the different ways of its use. Naturally, if the relationship between these ways of use is content participation, our interpretation of the reality of spirit will be completely different from the interpretation which is based on ‘’equivocation’’. Hence, the present paper investigates the view of Allamah Tabatabai who has captured Muslim thinkers’ attention. If we examine his works, we may not be able to relate to him any principles about the relationship of the use of spirit in the Qur'an with that in narrations.  Some of his works clearly state that there is equivocation in using the word ’’spirit’’, whereas in some other works, he resorts to the equivocational use of spirit and clearly points to the equivocational use of spirit. The adoption of this unidentified principle leads to the difference in Allamah's views about the interpretation of verses related to spirit. The present paper makes a library-based study and uses a descriptive-analytical method to evaluate it. Finally, investigating the uses of spirit in the Qur'an and in narrations the paper presents a key principle in this regard.

Key words: Allamah Tabatabai, spirit, imperative spirit, verses, narrations.

The Nature of the World of Pre-existence and a Critique of the Differing Views on this Subject


Mohammad Mostafai / PhD Student of philosophy and Islamic theology, Tehran University, Pardis Farabi        hekmat_senah@yahoo.com

Yahya Kabir / Associate Professor of Philosophy and Islamic theology, Tehran University, Pardis Farabi

Received: 2015/04/30- Accepted: 2015/10/08                                                                   kabir@ut.ac.ir



Among the religious doctrines to which Muslims adhere is the world of pre-existence. Deepening people’s understanding of religious beliefs is necessary for their upholding the faith and developing their ability to counter dubious ideas. So, this paper sheds light on the different views of Muslim intellectuals. Muslim intellectuals draw their conclusions from Qur’anic verses and narrations. In the world of pre-existence, man has born testimony to the Lordship of God and to his being God’s servant. The question of the nature of this world has been a subject of inquiry and different ideas have been shown. To sum up, seven theories are proposed. They are: the authoritative character of the appearance of narrations and impermissibility of any interpretation in them, the assumption of precedence of incorporeal souls, exclusivness of the world of pre-existence to especial group of people and not to all of them, the metaphorical and allegorical property of Qur’anic verses and narrations, interpreting this world as taking a covenant and reflecting reality through revelation and intellect, considering quiddities to be objective and non-existents to be positive and esoteric interpretation of the meaning of the Qur’anic verses and the narrations related to the world of pre-existence. Most of these views and statements have problems which cannot be easily solved, but from among them the ocultists’ interpretation is considered as the strongest interpretative view.

Key words: the world of pre-existence, the world of the covenant, the covenant of Alast, nature (Fitrah), intuitive knowledge.

A Critique of the Theoretical Principles
of Legitimacy in Ibn Taimyyah’s Political Thought


Mahdi Torabpour / PhD of the Instruction in the education of the Islamic Theoretical Principles, IKI.


Ahmad Vaezi / associate professor of philosophy and Islamic Theology Department, Baqir al Olum University

Received: 2015/04/09- Accepted: 2015/09/23                                            ahmadvaezi01@hotmail.com



This research presents a through critique of the theoretical principles of legitimacy in Ibn Taimyyah’s political thought. It tries, by resting on intellect, the Qur’an and Sunnah (tradition), to show the unsoundness of his thought. The influence exerted on some so-called Islamic governments in the region by Ibn Taimyyah’s Salafi thought regarding political legitimacy increases the importance of this research. Using a descriptive and critical method and explaining the view of Ibn Taimyyah about political legitimacy and its principles, the present paper concludes that his failing to adopt a reliable scientific method, he has not been successful in theorizing about political legitimacy. His preconceptions have such problems like: inattention to the intellect, lack of understanding of Imamah in Islam, confusing the idea of Imamah with the idea of prophethood and inattention to authoritative widely narrated texts, authority of unanimous agreement and the justice of the Companions of the Prophet.

Key words: legitimacy, Imamah, those in authority, the Companions of the Prophet, Ibn Taimyyah.

The Legitimacy of Imam’s
‘’Divine Appointment’’ in the political Theology of Asharites

Safdar Elahi Rad / Assistant professor of Theology and Philosophy of Religion Department, IKI        

Received: 2015/06/02- Accepted: 2015/11/02                                                                    elahi@iki.ac.ir



Political legitimacy is regarded one of the most important issues in political theology. There are several views about legitimacy in the political theology of Asharites, important of which is ‘’divine appointment’’. All Asharite theologians adhere to this view and give it precedence over the other the views about proving political legitimacy. Of course, according to Asharite political theology, the idea of ‘’divine appointment’’ does not correspond to the necessity of appointment Imam by God, rather it indicates that, in case there is such an appointment, the appointed person has political legitimacy. It is over this point that Asharites and Imamites have difference of opinion. Using a descriptive and analytical method, the present paper first explains the view of ‘’divine appointment’’ and proves the evidence supporting it, and then, investigates Asharites’ evidence for rejecting the necessity of ‘’divine appointment’’, and citing evidence from intellectual sciences and transmitted sciences (based on Sunni’s principles and sources) the paper demonstrates the necessity of divine appointment.

Key words: legitimacy, political theology, divine appointment, Asharites, Imamah, the Companions of the Prophet.         

Discovering the Fallacies in Presenting a Tarnished Image of Revelation (An Educational Workshop)


Faezeh Barzegar Tabrizi / MA student of religion philosophy, literature academy, Allamah Tabatabai University BarzegarTF@gmail.com

Hamid Reza Ayatollahi / professor in philosophy department, Allamah Tabatabai University

Received: 2015/08/05 – Accepted: 2016/01/08                                                     hamidayat@gmail.com



Identifying and discovering the fallacies in a text is among the issues, whose theoretical teaching and definition seem to be very difficult and even impossible. The author holds that in such cases there is a need to make use of a practical method. This paper presents an approach to familiarizing the reader with the various kinds of fallacies and the way of finding them out. Because of the special interest of the debates on ‘’religious experience’’, specially for those who are interested in ‘’ philosophy of religion’’, the work of Abdolkarim Suroosh titled ‘’Kalam-e-Mohammad’’ (Mohammad’s words), has been selected as a subject of study and the discussion is divided into two parts.  In the first part it is attempted to identify and expound the fallacies separately. In the second part, the fallacies contained in the whole text are presented in order to come up with a widespread evidence.

Key words: fallacy, the Prophet, inspiration, revelation, the contents of revelation, the form of revelation, absorption in God.

Another Study in Support of the Sound Reason for the Necessity of Revelation Based on Divine Providence


Hamid Karimi / Assistant professor of Islamic thought department, Science and Industry University of Iran    

Received: 2015/08/19 – Accepted: 2015/12/16                                                     h_karymi@yahoo.com



When the existence of God, the hereafter and the encounter with human existence are established, a basic question many arise: can we, by resting only on mind, make a decision about the necessity of divine guidance? Until now the followers of divine prophets have provided abundant evidence on the logical necessity of sending prophets. One of their evidence is that the necessity of revelation is based on divine providence and that the role of senses and mind in achieving felicity in this world and in the hereafter is very limited. Conversely, some hold opposing views and raise some objections. Using an analytical method based on reasoning, and criticizing the various objections which are raised by some of those who oppose the idea of the logical necessity of sending prophets, this paper seeks to admit the mentioned evidence again and stress the necessity of divine guidance. The findings of human conscience and mind are so limited and imperfect that they cannot answer man’s questions about the various actions and their different effects on his body and soul and on other creatures and worlds. Any person who is familiar with revelation, will face questioning in the divine court, otherwise man’s mind and nature (Fitrah) will be taken into account.

Key words: necessity of revelation, necessity of sending a prophet, prophethood, human perfection, man’s felicity, divine providence.