The Teleological argument Based
on the Principle of
the Fine Tuning of the Universe

Seyyed Jaber Mousavi Rad / PhD in philosophy of religion, Tehran University (Farabi Pardis)

Received: 2015/11/09 - Accepted: 2016/04/13                                             moosavirad313@gmail.com



The teleological argument is one of the proofs of God. In one of the latest interpretations of this argument, the principle of the Fine Tuning of the Universe is used. In this interpretation of the argument, instead of the biological order that is introduced in the traditional interpretations of the argument as an example of order, the fundamental cosmic fixed stars are dealt with and their fine tuning, that is the cause of life, is emphasized. Therefore, some of the criticisms that, based on the theory of evolution, are leveled at the biological order are effectively countered. Clarifying the argument based on the principle of cosmic fine-tuning, the present paper responds to the main criticisms directed at this argument based on some ideas such as accidents, physical necessity, anthropic principle and many worlds' hypotheses. It is finally proved that the argument based on the principle of cosmic fine-tuning is a cogent and compelling argument for the existence of God.

 Key words: the teleological argument, the teleological argument, evidence proving God, universal fine-tuning, anthropic principle.

Redefining the Concept of Order


Farah Ramin / associate professor of philosophy department, Qom University

Received: 2016/01/16 - Accepted: 2016/07/09                                                           f.ramin@qom.ac.ir



The teleological argument has long been of interest to philosophers and theologians. Despite the convergence of the content of this argument with the themes of revelation, there are many disagreements over the essence, fundamentals, premises and results of this argument. Dealing with the nature of the concept of order, determining the examples of order in the natural world, the reason for order and its implications for the existence of an intelligent moderator has always been a concern for the researchers in the field of modern theology. Since many disputes and divisions concerning the argument of order (for proving God's existence) are due to the ambiguity in its conceptual principles, the present paper seeks to explore the concept and forms of order. Order is an analogical concept; it is a philosophical secondary intelligible that is based on the three elements of components, harmony and purposefulness. Each of these elements are necessary (but not sufficient) for the realization of this concept. The concept of order is divided into various kinds with several criteria. Researchers believe that some of these forms cannot be used in this argument. In this paper, we attempt to review these viewpoints.


 Key words: concept of order, final order, causal order, aesthetic order.

The Infallibility of the Holy Prophet
in Secular Matters from the Shia and Sunni Viewpoints

ja’far Anvari / assistant professor of IKI                                                                anvari@qabas.net

Mohammad Hossein Faryab / assistant professor of IKI                                m.faryab@gmail.com

Received: 2015/11/07 - Accepted: 2016/04/20



Infallibility, one of the key topics in the field of Islamic theology, is a wide-ranging subject. This paper mainly deals with emphasizing the infallibility of the Prophet in secular issues (except explaining and observing religious laws). Many Shia scholars  , based on the Qur'anic verses , Hadiths of the infallible Imams and rationality, insist on His infallibility in different aspects ; But many Sunni scholars reject this kind of the Prophet’s infallibility and regard His infallibility as limited only to the matters of religion. In order to prove their point of view, they refer to some of the Quranic verses and hadiths one of the most famous of which is making a palm tree prolific. The present paper explains the evidence proving the Shia’s point of view and criticizes the opponents’ arguments.


Key words: types of infallibility, infallibility in secular matters, Sunni scholars, Shiite scholars, Qur'anic verses, Hadiths of the infallible Imams.

Ghadir’s Weather:
Was the Weather Hot in Ghadir?

Seyyed Reza Mousavi Va’ez / level four of seminary, MA student of Fiqh and the principles of law, Tehran University, Farabi College                                                                                                                             rezamo1001@gmail.com

Mohammad Rasool Ahangaran / associate professor of Tehran University, Farabi College     

Bibi Sediqe Makki / PhD student of Fiqh and the principles of Islamic law, Tehran University, Farabi College                bibimakki@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/02/22 - Accepted: 2016/08/06



The present paper is a review and analysis of a doubt regarding Ghadir that has been recently published in cyberspace in the form of papers, questions and comments entitled “was the weather warm in Ghadir?" In this doubt, expressing that the Ghadir event coincided with March and a hot weather is unlikely and even impossible in this season, it is claimed that the Shiite argument for the appointment of Ali (As) as the successor to the prophet is senseless. Using a historical and climatic analysis of Ghadir and the library-based and analytical method, the paper responds to this question by proving that the evidence for the definite Imamate of Ali (As) is not limited to Ghadir hadith and the implication of the word "Mola" in the Hadith of Ghadir to the authoritative Wilayat of Ali (As) cannot be rejected by the heat of that day. In that geographical region, hot weather in winter is scientifically, rationally or normally likely. According to Sunni traditions, in the day of Ghadir event, the weather was extremely hot and denying hot weather means refuting the  authenticity of traditions, and is therefore ineffective the issue of Ghadir.


Key words: Ghadir, Wali,  Mola, caliphate, Imamate.

A Review of Shaykh Mufid’s Views
on the Doctrine of "the World of Zar"

Morteza Khosh Sohbat / PhD student of Islamic theology, IKI            mkhoshsohbat@gmail.com

Received: 2016/01/01 - Accepted: 2016/05/22



The doctrine of "Zar World" is a subject of dispute among Muslim scholars. This doctrine, based on the outward of many traditions, states that the soul of every man existed prior to the birth of his natural body, and passed through certain levels of knowledge. Many scholars believe that there are numerous rational and traditional problems with this doctrine. Sheikh Mufid is the first Shia theologian to criticize this doctrine. In addition to criticisms regarding the documents and content of this doctrine’s traditional arguments, he has also leveled rational criticisms at it, especially concerning the necessity of reincarnation. Using the descriptive- critical method, in this paper we have first presented Sheikh Mufid’s critiques and then we have criticized him in defense of this doctrine.


Key words: Zar World, priority of the soul over the body, negation of the divine attributes of the soul, reincarnation, monotheistic nature, Sheikh Mufid.

The Quran and Its Motivational Language

Sa’eed Abbasi Niya / assistant professor of Islamic Azad University, the department of Islamic teaching, Abadan Branch                                                                                                                              dr.abasinya@mailfa.com

Abolfazl Sajedi / associate professor of theology and philosophy of religion, IKI.

Received: 2016/01/24 - Accepted: 2016/06/08                                                              sajedi@qabas.net



In the present era, Language of the Qur'an is an important issue with a special position among the Quranic researchers and theologians. Some of the most important viewpoints presented in this regard include the theory of “language of inner nature", "the language of common knowledge" and "Language for direction and guidance”. Although each of these languages is bound to be concise, they maximally express an aspect, attribute or component of the language of the Qur'an, and no more; this prompted some scholars to offer the theory of "compositional language". By accepting this theory, one of the components and elements of the language of the Qur’an, that is the element of motivation, can be identified and presented. The present paper seeks to prove the  spread of the element of motivation throughout the Quran and to introduce the component of motivation as an element inseparable from its language .This objective is accomplished  in two ways: (1) drawing inspiration from the general attributes of the Quran such as the miraculous character of the Quran, remembrance and invocation of Divine Name, giving glad tidings and  warning, exhortation and teleology ( guidance) (2) analyzing the statements of the Quran in two traditional and compositional forms. Meanwhile, compositional statements are typically used in common dialogues to generate motivation and essentially have this function; therefore they do not need elaboration. But the motivational aspect in the Quranic statements are studied in at least four ways including speaking of God (the divine origin of statements), its  motivational traditions and content, its motivational style in conveying traditions and association of these statements with motivational particles. Then, the knowledge- spreading feature of the Quran in contrast to the theory of expressionism and emotionalism of the language of religion is also explained.

Key words: motivational language, attributes of the Quran, statements, the language of the Quran, verisimilitude.

The Methodology of
khajeh Nasir al-din Tusi for Proving Religious Beliefs

Behnam Malekzadeh / PhD student of philosophy of religion, IKI    malekzadeh313@yahoo.com

Hassan Yousefian / associate professor of IKI                                          hasanusofian@gmail.com

Received: 2015/12/18 - Accepted: 2016/04/26



The Methodology of sciences can be considered among the characteristics of the new age and it can be claimed that scientific advancements are considerably indebted to meticulous attention to methods. Theology, like other sciences, is no exception to the rule and requires its own methodology. Research in the area of theology can be carried out using two historical and rational methods. In the present study which is conducted using the first method, we investigate the theological method of khajeh Nasir al-din Tusi for proving beliefs. Our approach in this research is descriptive-analytic and critical. The most important findings of the research on the theological method of khaje include his making use of discursive and dialectical method for defending and proving, turning away from analogical and symbolical method and using unabrogated verses and frequently narrated traditions.


 Key words: methodology, theological method, Nasir al-din Tusi, rational method, traditional method, argument, dialectics, single individual narration.


The Narrators of Bahrain's Shiite Theological Heritage


Mahdi Soleimani Ashtiani / PhD student of Shiism, the subdiscipline of religions


Ghasem Javadi / Assistant Professor of Al- Mostafa International University                                                  

Received: 2016/02/21 - Accepted: 2016/07/26                                                     javadi608@yahoo.com



In order to investigate the theological ideas of the narrators and companions of the Imams, it is necessary to collect and organize their narrative heritage and evaluate their probable tendency towards theological subjects. In ancient Bahrain (including Kuwait, Ahsa ', Qatar and present Bahrain archipelago) literalism was the mainstream among the narrators and scholars of hadith, and this trend dominated the scientific domain of Bahrain for centuries. Some have even regarded the traditionalism of the later centuries in Bahrain as the continuation of the same old trend of literalism. Using the sources of Hadith and authorities and introducing Bahraini traditionalists and theologians (with an emphasis on the tribe of Abd al-Qais) in one period (the time of Imam Ali to Imam Javad), the present paper attempts to re-identify the theological history of Bahrain as an intermediate and considerable movement, show the presence of this movement and criticize the idea of absolute and unrivaled literalism among the Bahrainis.


Key words: Bahrain, Abd al-Qais, theological traditions, theological area in Bahrain.