The Infallibility of Reason and the Error of Men of Reason

Ahmad Saeidi / Assistant professor of IKI                                           Ahmadsaeidi67@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/08/31 - Accepted: 2017/01/25



Undoubtedly, reason has a specific limit and (independent of other faculties) it is incapable of perceiving certain things. But what is the limit of reason and to where does it extend; who is capable of determining its limit? Does reason commit error even in its own domain? In this paper, effort has been made to support the claim that the authoritativeness and infallibility of reason is inherent in the limited area which itself distinguishes. That is, first, determining the limits of reason cannot be entrusted to anything other than reason itself; and any effort to limit reason outside of the domain of reason can only be an admonition for reason so as to free itself from simple or complex ignorance and come to find “knowledge” or “knowledge of knowledge” as its limits. Second, reason does not commit error in its own domain and apparent errors of reason have to do with the other dimensions of a rational human being. Third, casting doubt on the capability of reason and denial of its infallibility within the limits it has been created, has no end other than being caught in the trap of some kind of pervasive skepticism which is contrary to man’s God-given nature [firah].

Keywords: reason; men of reason; rational argumentation; authoritativeness; inherent.

The Theorems of Virtue and Indecency: Noetic of Rational

Majid Abol-Ghassemzadeh / PhD. In philosophy from the University of Baqir al-‘Ulum.

Received: 2016/07/06 - Accepted: 2016/11/30                                              abolqasemzade@rihu.ac.ir



This paper intends to prove the noetic nature of the theorems of virtue and indecency and to refute their being rational. First, the viewpoints of such scholars as Alpharabius, Avicenna, and Muhaqiq Ṭūsī who have considered the theorems of virtue and indecency as being among the generally accepted premises have been presented. Next, two interpretations from the viewpoint of those scholars was mentioned: Lāhījī views the theorems of virtue and indecency as being certain and even obvious. However, Muḥaqiq Isfahani considers this issue as generally accepted. The truth is that one can understand the rationality and noesis of the theorems of virtue and decency in the words of the famous Islamic scholars, because one theorem may from one aspect be among the certainties which its truth is proven with definite proof and from another perspective, it is among the generally accepted premises which has no reality except fame and conformity with the opinions of the wise. Furthermore, the reasoning of Muḥaqiq Isfahani has been dealt with. This argument that because the theorems of virtue and indecency are not obvious so then they are generally accepted has not been accepted, because one cannot conclude irrationality owing to the absence of obviousness. As for the second argument which states that the wise pass verdict on virtue and indecency purely on the grounds of preserving the social order, it became clear that the wise, in relation to the validity for the verdicts, pay attention to the real interests and corruptions. Therefore, their verdict has a rational origin and is not purely derived from validity.

Keywords: the theorems of virtue and indecency; rational (with certainty); noetic (generally accepted); Lāhījī, Muḥaqiq Isfahani.

The Fitrah (God-given nature of man)
Theory of Ayatollah Shahabadi

Mahdi Dinarvand / MA graduate of the University of Qom                Mahdi.dinarvand@chmail.ir

Ahmad Abedi / Faculty member of the University of Qom.

Received: 2016/05/14 - Accepted: 2016/10/09



The perfect mystic, his eminence ‘Allamah Mirza Mohammad Ali Shahabadi who is one of the well-known personalities and geniuses of the time, and truly, he should be considered as the solemn interpreter of Qur’anic fitrah. With his theory of fitrah, he established a solid base in explaining the relationship between the genetical [takwīn] book (man) and the compiled book (Qur’an). The fact that the entirety of religion with all of its principles and branches as well as its jurisprudence, morality, and doctrines is rooted in the fitrah of man, is something which can be derived from the fitrah theory of ‘Allamah Shahabadi. In this paper, effort has been made to explain the fitrah theory. Furthermore, this paper has sought to discuss, analyze, and prove the innateness of all the pillars and components of religion (monotheism, belief in Resurrection Day, prophethood, imamate, morality, and the laws) as being based on the fitrah theory of Ayatollah Shahabadi. Moreover, some of the results which have been obtained from this theory have been mentioned, such as making use of this theory to prove that “the earth cannot be empty of the vicegerent of Allah.”

Keywords: fitrah; monotheism; belief in Resurrection Day, guardianship [wilāyah], morality, love.

Investigating the Effect of Observing the Addresses’ Level of Understanding by God and the Saints in Verisimilitude of Religious Texts

Hamid Reza Moghimi Ardakani / PhD Student of Islamic Theology IKI     hmoqimi@gmail.com

Mahmud Fath-Ali / Associate Professor in Department of Theology/ IKI                                         

Received: 2016/06/07 - Accepted: 2016/10/31



Inferring a correct worldview and ideology from religious texts is dependent on verisimilitude of those texts. It may be that some, out of necessity and observing the level of understanding of the addressee and the necessity of God’s wisdom, see it necessary for the wise speaker to convey the wrong message and hide the reality, and due to the puzzle-like nature of the reality and the obviousness of various inferences from religious texts, they may regard these texts as not depicting the reality. This paper analyzes this issue through the use of a rational-analytic method for proving the verisimilitude of religious texts. The results of this research show that conveying a message contrary to reality by God is impossible and while hiding the reality when it does not have to do with guidance is possible, the puzzle-like nature of reality with respect to the longitudinal levels of the reality does not play a role here. Ultimately, by reminder of the rules of understanding religious texts and reference to the nine practical methods for observing the level of understanding of the addressee by the saints, it becomes clear that the differing levels of understanding of addressees does not hinder the verisimilitude of religious texts.

Keywords: observing the level of understanding of addressees; verisimilitude; religious texts; white lie; hiding the reality; the levels of reality; methods of observing the level of understanding.

An Analysis on the Bases
of the Epistemological Study of the Ashura Movement

Mohammad Hoseinzadeh / Professor, IKI                                                 Mohammad_h@qabas.net

Received: 2016/09/29 - Accepted: 2017/02/05



In this paper, by stating the principles or rules of historical researches which were epistemological and methodological in nature, research has been made on the sources of the Ashura movement and its events. This issue is interdisciplinary and its original position is the epistemology of traditional sciences. However, the epistemological bases and achievements of the Ashura movement also have many functions in the field of Islamic theology and history. In this paper, the following will be attended to: statement of the epistemological principles in the domain of traditionl reason and the epistemic level of traditional reasons; the types and conditions for their authenticity; and the origin of their authenticity, especially with respect to single reports. By analyzing the epistemological principles governing traditional reasoning as well as the sources of and evidence concerning the Ashura movement and its events, one can conclude that sources and evidence concerning the events of Ashura are not confined to historical records. In fact, in addition to these records, one can obtain reliable sources in different fields as well.  In addition, many sources exist which prove the events of Ashura which could be relied upon and referred to as authentic epistemic sources of the Ashura movement in verifying religious beliefs in the science of theology. The historic relationship between the Ashura movement and the past is not interrupted but rather has a strong connection. Therefore, one should not be doubtful over many of the events of Ashura. This issue has a significant epistemological, historical, and theological role.

Keywords: episteme; traditional reason; single report; transfer of episteme; credibility of epistemology; transmitted from generation to generation; repute.   

Methodology and Intellectual Background of the
Theories of Shia Theologians of the School of Baghdad on the Issue of Imamate 

Mohammad Hossein Faryab / Assistant professor of IKI            m.faryab@gmail.com

Received: 2016/08/28 - Accepted: 2017/02/05



Methodology and intellectual background of a theory is one of the most important issues which has a crucial role in analyzing and distinguishing the reason for the advancement of that theory. The Shia theologians of the school of Baghdad who lived during the fourth and fifth century AH are considered to be the greatest twelver theologians throughout history. Nevertheless, the narrations of the infallible Imams which are considered the principal sources of religious thought can rarely be seen in their theological books. The aim of this paper is to first, understand the intellectual methodology of these theologians, and second, analyze why they strongly relied on reason in their argumentations and theological theories with respect to imamate, in light of the cultural background of Baghdad during those days. Based on the most important findings of this study, the strict attitude of the Baghdad theologians toward hadiths as well as the various schools of theology, and also religious fanaticism and fierce sectarian conflicts are among the most important factors which prevented the Shia theologians of that era to make full use of the narrations.  

Keywords: methodology; background; Baghdad; theologians; imamate.

Analysis and Critique of the Reasons
of Mystics for the Goal of Creation

Marjan Dorosty Motlagh / Ph.D student of theology, Quran and Hadith University, Shahr Rei


Ali Afzali / Associate professor of Theology group, Institute for Research in Philosophy

Received: 2016/08/20 - Accepted: 2016/12/26



One of the minute epistemological topics in theological studies is God’s goal of creating the world. Islamic theologians consider God’s goal of creating the universe as bringing benevolence to creation. Philosophers believe that because God has all the perfect qualities; is the absolute reason for creation; and the thing caused inevitably does not contradict it, bestowal of grace, bringing into existence, and creating the best world order by God is obligatory. In the view of mystics, creation has taken place based on God’s love for being known, and the entirety of existence are the manifestations of God’s essence who have no existence other than the existence of God. God loved His infinite perfect qualities. Thus, He manifested Himself in the form of different worldly phenomena so that by seeing His own beauty as reflected in His action, which is indeed the creation of the world, He would take pleasure and the goal of creation is nothing beyond His unique essence. In this paper, from among all the views, using a library based method, answering the main question about the viewpoint of mystics in this regard was attended to. By posing questions and problems about it and the consequences of accepting such an outlook, it was revealed that the issue needs to be reviewed and referred to the teachings of the Holy Qur’an as well as the narrations of the Infallibles.

Keywords: mysticism; goal of creation; manifestation; appearance; love.

Philosophical “Explanation” of Justice
in in the Theological Thought of Mulla Sadra

Mahdi Ganjour / Assistant professor of the department of philosophy and Islamic theology of the

      University of Isfahan                                                                                      ganjvar78@gmail.com

Majid Sadeghi Hasanabadi / Associate professor of the department of philosophy and Islamic theology of the University of Isfahan.

Mohammad Bidehendi/ Associate professor of the department of philosophy and Islamic theology of the University of Isfahan.

Forough al-Sadat Rahimpour / Associate professor of the department of philosophy and Islamic theology of the University of Isfahan

Received: 2016/08/23 - Accepted: 2016/12/31



The concept of “divine justice,” is one of the important topics of theology which has been the focus of attention of thinkers and philosophers of the East and the West. The extensive research of justice-researchers indicates the serious concern which possessors of illumination and thought have for this issue: ranging from Plato and Aristotle in Ancient Greece, to Alpharabius, Avicenna, and Muslim philosophers, until now, each one of them have been somehow involved in the issue of justice and have devoted a part of their philosophical works to this concept. Meanwhile, the philosophical outlook of Mulla Sadra toward the issue of divine justice has been less attended to by researchers. Owing to this research gap and necessity, the following writing, while analyzing the essence and significance of justice in his thought, has inferred and expounded on three domains of divine justice (genetical, canonical, and penal justice; these have been implicitly and sporadically referred to in different parts of his works). This inference and explanation has been made in a problem-oriented style and by reference to authentic sources as well as by exploring the philosophical and interpretive [tafsīrī] works of Mulla Sadra.

Keywords: Mulla Sadra; divine justice; principality of existence, substantial motion, the Book of Genesis [takwīn], the Compiled Book [the Qur’an], the Book of the Self [nafs]