Reviewing the Theories of Ibn Sina, Aquinas and Sadr al-Muta'llehin on the Language of Religion


Hossein Mozaffari / Assistant Professor at Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research


Received: 2017/10/29 - Acceopted: 2018/03/08



This paper seeks to review and criticize the theories of three eastern and western scholars, Ibn Sina, Thomas Aquinas and Sadr al-Muta'llehin, on the language of religion. Ibn Sina believes that religious texts about the origin and end are in the form of parable and allegory. Therefore, they should not be interpreted based on their surface meaning. Thomas Aquinas, however, deals with allegory in another sense. From his point of view, God’s being "all -Hearing" and "All-Seeing" either means that God is the creator of faculties of hearing and seeing or that God has traits whose relation to him is like the relation of hearing and seeing to mankind. While criticizing these two theories and regarding them contrary to linguistic common sense, this paper explains Sadr al-Muta'llehin’s theory in this regard and prefers it to the above two theories. Sadr al-Muta'llehin believes in positing words for the spirit of meanings. Accordingly, one can both interpret religious texts based on their appearance and avoid mere similitude and corporatization.

Key words: Ibn Sina, Aquinas, Sadr al-Muta'llehin, language of religion, positing words for the spirit of meanings.

A Critique of the Idea of Religious Autonomous Intellect


Hassan Ahmadi / Ph.D. Student

Received: 2017/10/07- Acceopted: 2018/02/07



Mohammad Reza Hakimi deserves to be considered as one of the pillars of the school of tafkīk in modern time. He could introduce this school to the public through his fascinating and readable works. The religious autonomous intellect presented by the followers of school of tafkīk including Hakimi is an attempt for finding a clear understanding of religious propositions and purifying them from eclectic and imported ideas. According to the followers of this school intellect is divided broadly into two kinds, pre-religious and post-religious. Furthermore, they emphasize on the independence and self-sufficiency of post-religious intellect and the religious autonomous intellect from other epistemic areas, because they believe that due to its connection with divine revelation this kind of intellect is free from all sorts of needs. Using descriptive and analytical method and concentrating on Hakimi's works, this paper criticizes this view. The findings shows this view is not strictly valid because it has serious weaknesses and shortcomings, such as ambiguity in the nature and elements which awe identity to religious autonomous intellect and the contradictions between Hakimi's views and the foundations of the tafkīki school, which cannot be easily ignored.

Key Words: Hakimi, Elemental intellect, Religious autonomous intellect, The school of tafkīk.


Explaining the Purgatorial Evolution According to Mulla Sadra's Philosophical Foundations


Yahya Nour Mohammadi / Ph.D. from IKI

Abdul Rassul Ubudiyat / Teacher in IKI

Received: 2017/09/09 - Acceopted: 2018/02/10



The evolution of the soul of human being in purgatory is one of the issues in the religious texts, but it is a controversial subject in philosophy. Mulla Sadra explicitly denies that, but perhaps, it is possible to explain and establish the idea of the evolution of the soul by resting on some philosophical bases of Mulla Sadra and using rational methods. According to such bases like: negation of peripatetic matter, negation of generation and corruption in nature, substantial motion and generalization of substantial motion about all the facts that undergo to change, it can be concluded that the soul and also all the facts which due to intensification of motion or the perfection that access to these intensifying facts which undergo change and transformation do not need incarnating in the matter or attachment to it. Therefore, the soul does not need the matter in its perfectibility and the lack of matter does not negate the perfection of the soul in purgatory.

Key Words: Perfection, Purgatory, Avicenna, Mulla Sadra.

The Evidence Supporting the Theory of Embodiment of Deeds and Its Theological Functions from the Viewpoint of 'Allameh Tabataba'i


Nusrat Nilsaz / Assistant Professor in TMU

Nasser Cullivand / MA in Quranic Sciences

Received: 2017/07/02 - Acceopted: 2017/12/01



One of the important issues concerning the Hereafter is how humans will be repaid for that they do in this world. The holy Qur'an and traditions explore this subject in various ways. Many scholars and commentators consider that the verses of Qur'an and traditions alongside the rational reason in favor of the theory of the survival of the soul and the interaction between the act and soul confirm theory of embodiment of deeds in the Hereafter. 'Allameh Tabataba'i, a contemporary and wise commentator of the Qur'an has paid special attention to this issue. Resting on the aforementioned arguments and proving the theory of embodiment of deeds he pints out to the important theological functions which this theory suggests. The most important functions of this theory are, proving the Divine justice repaying for the deeds and showing the cause for the immortal life in hell. This study states the proofs which confirm the theory of embodiment of the deeds and explains the functions of this theory in the light of 'Allameh Tabataba'I's viewpoint.

Key Words: 'Allameh Tabataba'i, The theory of embodiment of the deeds, Theological functions, Deeds.

The Supremacy of Prophets (P.B.U.T) from the Viewpoint of Qur'an


Seyyed Abolqasem Kazemi Shaykh Shabani / Ph.D. Student in IKI

Mohammad Hussein Faryab / Assistant Professor / IKI

Received: 2017/04/08 - Acceopted: 2017/09/08



Although the issue of the supremacy of Imam has been dealt with in detail in Shiite and Sunni theological sources, less attention has been paid to the issue of the supremacy of prophets. Using a desk research and referring to Quranic verses this research seeks to study the idea of the absolute necessity of the supremacy of prophets, to find out whether or not the idea of the absolute necessity of the supremacy of prophets over the people of their time (their nation) in all aspects can be understood from the Quranic verses? In some Quranic verses, Allah Almighty considers it absolutely necessary to obey certain prophets which indicate their absolute supremacy. Some other vague verses show that a number of divine prophets have some shortcomings. Some other verses clearly show that they do not have absolute supremacy and that the issue of the supremacy of prophets and its dominion seems to be closely related to their aim and wisdom. Therefore, according to Quranic verses, the supremacy of prophets as far as in guidance is concerned for definite. There is no evidence about supremacy in other dimensions and aspects and evidence is pretend against it.

Key Words: Supremacy, Prophet, Messenger, Guidance, The Qur'an

An Enquiry into the Conceptual Idea of God in the Sources of Narrations


Mohammad Rasool Imani / Assistant Professor / SBU

Received: 2017/09/25 - Acceopted: 2018/03/05



This paper seeks to study the most important titles which refer to God according to the words of the infallibles (P.B.U.T) in the sources of narrations. If these titles studied and considered as basic concepts, they can contribute to the acquisition of more pure conceptual ideas from the rules of essence and Divine attributes and actions and to drawing up a more coherent Islamic theism. This paper, first, collects the narrations that refer to the attributes of God in the sources of narrations, and then analyzes the menings of these attributes in order to grasp the most precise concept. According to the research finding, "The Creator of all things", "the Light of the heavens and the earth" and "the All-embracing" (al-Samad) are the most important titles in the narrations which refer to God. The title of "All-embracing" found in the narrations refers to the kind of "Being" which is the principle of intention and does not have any limitation in the boundary and text of being, and despite His abstraction from substantive determine He can be the center and object of the worship of servants.

Key Words: Conceptual concept, God, Theology, Creator, Light of the creation, All-embracing, Sources of narration

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