قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

A Critique of Dawkins's Arguments
in Negation of the God’ Existence

Abbas Sheikh shoa’ee/Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Kharazmi Uni.     sheikhshoaee@gmail.com
Abdullah Mortazavi Nia /M.A. in Islamic Philosophy, Qazvin IKIU    keydige1111@gmail.com
Received: 2017/11/30 - Accepted: 2018/07/02

The issue of "the existence of God and its relation to the world" has always been a vibrant and dynamic field in philosophical discussions. Bring up Darwin's theory of evolution in Western scientific circles, very important questions were raised in this regard. Enumerating criticism on some of the proofs of the existence of God such as ontological argument, teleological argument, casual argument and etc., Richard Dawkins, a biologist, who believes in Darwin's theory of evolution, has provided arguments in his works to deny the existence of God, such as argument of “improbability of the existence of God”, argument of “belief in God as a mental virus” and argument of “God’s explanatory competition with science”. This article explains the reasons of Dawkins for denying the existence of God, and then it reviews and criticizes them based on the ideas of martyr Mutahari, Alistair McGrath and other contemporary philosophers of religion.  
 Key Words: Dawkins, arguments of the God’s existence, atheism, argument of improbability, argument of the mental virus, theistic explanation, scientific explanation.

The Theory of Materiality of the Human’s Ideal Dimension and its Evidences in Narrations and Empirical Sciences

Musa Malayeri / Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch    
Marjan Durusti Mutlaq / PhD in Theology of Imamieh, Qur’an and Hadith Uni
Received: 2018/01/02 - Accepted: 2018/07/16
The issue of immorality or materiality of the soul, is still a challenging issue for theologians and philosophers. Philosophers believe in immortality, and some of the theologians believe in its materiality. Bring up the theory of the human’s triple dimension and studying the properties of the third domain as an ideal dimension, seeks to resolve this conflict so that, the religious texts, which refers to the materiality of the soul, do not need to any symbolic hermeneutics. Apart from immaterial “soul” and material “body” human being has “spirit”, which can be considered as a kind of state of matter, that today is called plasma, very tiny particles, pregnant, formless, and yet fluid. One of the evidences of the adaptation of the “plasma” with purgatorial immortality is the theory of movement in abstractions, which is accepted by some later philosophers. Accordingly, the ideal world cannot be considered abstract if it has the ability to change aside from the domain. Using the library method, this paper brings up the theory of existence of the energetic objects and plasma as the ideal body and then it brings some evidences from the traditions and physical and metaphysical experimental observations.
Key Words: subtle material, abstract, energy, spirit, soul.

Being “Essential of the Section of Demonstration” of “good and badness of actions”: Responding to Criticisms

Ahmad Hussein Sharifi / Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy, IKI    
Received: 2018/02/15 - Accepted: 2018/06/09
The issue of essential good and badness has been a very controversial issue in the history of Islamic sciences, and in particular in theology. Opponents and advocates of this theory have different views in this regard. The meaning of “essential” in this compound is considered as “essential of the section of demonstration” in one of the renowned accounts of this view. Yet, such a sense has been denied by certain theologians and contemporary philosophers. Using a descriptive method this paper explains the views of the opponents and advocates and then, it answers the criticisms of the opposition by the rational and critical method. Findings show that, the considered critiques have raised or caused by confusion between actual good and badness with ethical one, or it is the effect of misunderstanding or inaccuracy on the meaning of essential of the section of demonstration, or it is the result of some uncertain assumptions, such as the distinction between requirements of experimental intellect and discursive intellect.   
Key Words: essential good and badness, essential of the section of demonstration, experimental intellect, actual virtue, moral virtue.

The Lingual Signified of Promise and Threat in the Qur’an

Saeed Abbasinia / Assistant Professor at Abadan Islamic Azad University
Abolfazl Sajedi / Professor at the Department of Theology, IKI    sajedi@qabas.net
Received: 2017/12/20 - Accepted: 2018/06/09

One of the most versatile linguistic forms in the Qur’an is promise “Wa’d” and threat “Wa’id”. A total of 1800 Quranic verses involves promise and threat, which this plurality in the Qur’an, has a great influence on the general formation of the Quranic language and its coordinates. Using the descriptive, analytical and comparative method, this paper seeks to identifies and analyzes the coordinates of the lingual signified of the Qur’anic promise and threat in the form of speech act, with an approach to the theory of speech act of Austin and John Rogers Searle. Findings of this paper show that, the lingual signified of promise and threat is delivery and induction of the promisor’s intention and its certainty to the audience; and declaring the demand and will of the speaker for leading the audience to action and desirable states, in relation to an obligation that fulfills the requirements of the promise and threat. The result of this intention, demand and will is the same motivation that leads to fear, hope and other possible actions. So, the lingual signified of promise and threat is a kind of motivation that is followed by the fears, hope and the subsequent acts of the audience. Accordingly, the lingual signified of promise and threat is in the motivational language of the Holy Qur'an
Key Words: promise, threat, lingual signified, speech act.

A Reflection on the Narration of Ibn Sād from the Issue of the Allah’s Apostle’s Succession

Seyyed Ali Mustajab al-Da’vati / Ph.D. Student of Mysticism and Sufism/ Semnan Uni
Fatemeh Khan Sanami / PhD Student of Islamic Theological Schools/ URD Uni
Sha'ban Ali Khan Sanami / Associate Professor of Education Department, Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services     Sh_khansanami@yahoo.com
Received: 2018/02/05 - Accepted: 2018/07/16

Abu ‘Abd Allah Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Mani‘ (168-230 AH-784-845 AD), known as ibn Sa‘d the historian and biographer, is the author of a very detailed and elaborate compilation of Tabaqat al-kubra. He was known as a trustworthy reporter of the narrations among the scholars and historians and so historians have referred to him very much. Meanwhile, the issue of the succession of the Allah’s Apostle (S) was reported in Tabaqat al-kubra, the ibn Sa‘d’s book, so that clearly reveals the author's efforts in highlighting his beliefs. In these reports, ibn Sa‘d suggested to the reader that the only favorite candidate for the Allah’s Messenger (S) for his succession was none other than Abu Bakr; while it ignores the opposition reports as well as the privileged position of Imam Ali (as) in the traditions of the Prophet (S). Using analytical-descriptive method, this paper seeks to uncover the truth about the selective and distorted reports of the author of Tabaqat on the issue of the succession of the Prophet (S).
Key Words: ibn Sa‘d, Abu Bakr, Saqifah, succession.

Karl Barth on Natural Theology: A Critical Study

Mehrdad Nadimi / PhD Student of Mashhad University    alinadimi59@gmail.com
Yousef Daneshvar Nilu / Associate Professor of IKI    yousef.daneshvar@gmail.com
Received: 2017/03/11 - Accepted: 2018/08/06

Natural theology has been playing in Abrahamic faiths the role of a link relating revelatory teachings to the current human knowledge. Notwithstanding, the validity and possibility of natural theology has never been agreed upon by the theologians of the faiths.  Karl Bath, who is believed by many to be the most prominent and influential twentieth-century protestant, and even Christian, theologian, adamantly opposes any system of thought that hinges Christian beliefs on the findings of human intellect. Accordingly, he could be considered as an archetype of unmitigated opposition against natural theology in the present world. In this paper, we have tried to show that Barth’s critique of natural theology has to do with his analysis of the role natural theology played in the history of Christianity, on the one hand, and his peculiar reading of some Christian doctrines, on the other. However, seen from an epistemological point of view, Barth’s position against natural theology will pose serious challenges to revealed theology as well.
Key Words:Karl Barth, Natural Theology, Revealed Theology, Theology of the Word, The Original Sin